Linear Devices

Magnum PSI neonplasma; Credit: DIFFER; contact DIFFER for usage rights.
Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), Netherlands, operates Magnum PSI, and the Pilot-PSI devices, both linear plasma generators used to investigate plasma-wall interactions. Other linear plasma generators for studying plasma-wall interactions, PSI-2 and JULE-PSI, are operated by Forschungszentrum Jülich.